Hemoglobin is the protein that gives the blood its color and enables oxygen to be carried to the cells. Hemoglobin is carried by red blood cells in the blood. If the hemoglobin protein in the blood falls below the normal level or the number of red blood cells decreases, it is called anemia. There are many types of anemia: It may occur later or be congenital.
If disease is not treated, it can cause some problems in the body. Anemia also leads to conditions called hypoxia, in which not enough oxygen can be delivered to tissues. Since not enough oxygen enters the body, all organs are starting to struggle.
Anemia strains all internal organs and muscles due to lack of oxygen. This disease can cause pain in the body, mood disorders, forgetfulness, and numbness in the hands and feet.
Anemia should be detected and treatment planning should be started as soon as possible. Among the causes of disease, there may be genetic factors or may be caused by nutritional deficiency. Before treating disease, it should be investigated very well and if the doctor requires, tests such as gastrointestinal endoscopy should be performed.
Types of Anemia
It is an inherited blood disorder that is passed on from both mother and father. Red blood cells are round, flexible, and ring-like in shape. In people with sickle cell anemia, the red blood cells take the shape of a sickle. Since it loses its flexibility, the name of the sickle is also here. While normal blood cells can pass through capillaries, abnormal cells get stuck inside the capillaries and cannot pass. In this case, it can be life-threatening.
Aplastic is one of the diseases that develop due to bone marrow failure. It is also called the cases where blood cells cannot be produced in the bone marrow. It is one of the serious illnesses that can put the life of the patient at risk by decreasing or disappearing both white and red blood cells.
It is a type of disease that occurs when the life span of red blood cells in peripheral blood is shortened prematurely. Hemolytic disease may be hereditary or it may develop later depending on factors. In hemolytic disease, the body begins to produce 6 to 8 times more blood cells than the average. But cell destruction develops faster than newly produced blood cells. This causes blood cell breakdown called hemolysis.
Pernicious Anemia is directly related to vitamin B12. People with pernicious anemia cannot get enough vitamin B12 from food. They do not have a protein called intrinsic factor produced in the stomach. A deficiency of this protein leads to a vitamin B12 deficiency, resulting in pernicious anemia resulting from B12 deficiency.
Megaloblastic disease is a type of anemia in which it is lower than normal. Vitamin B-12 is also known as folate deficiency anemia or macrocytic anemia.
There are three important causes of disaese that is not congenital but occurs in adulthood. These; iron deficiency, B12 deficiency and folic acid deficiency.
Iron is one of the most important components of the hemoglobin protein; In the case of iron deficiency, hemoglobin cannot be produced and disaease occurs. This condition is called iron deficiency anemia.
Iron deficiency anemia; It may occur as a result of iron-poor nutrition and some gastrointestinal problems. In addition, iron deficiency in some women occurs due to excessive blood loss during the menstrual period.
Folic acid and vitamin B12 also play important roles in the production of red blood cells. Therefore, a diet poor in folic acid and B12 can also lead to disaese. In particular, little or no consumption of red meat leads to vitamin B12 and iron deficiency. Folic acid deficiency can also be seen in people who do not consume vegetables. In order to prevent anemia, foods should be consumed in a balanced way.
Blood loss due to trauma or internal bleeding is also among the reasons that can lead to anemia. Congenital anemias generally depend on genetic factors. In addition to all these, it should be kept in mind that chronic diseases can also cause anemia.
- Pallor of the face, eyes, or nail beds
- Hair loss
- Get tired early
- Palpitations and shortness of breath
- Cracks in the lips
- Restless leg syndrome
- It can be seen in the form of impaired concentration.
Anemia is one of the most common conditions. It can be observed in almost every society, all races and all age groups. For the diagnosis of anemia, your doctor will first take your medical history and your family history for diseases such as thalassemia and sickle cell anemia. Afterwards, disease can be diagnosed by performing tests and examinations together with the physical examination.
In physical examination, heart rate is listened. Breathing functions are checked. The spleen and liver are checked for swelling.
Blood tests may be ordered to find out the type and level of anemia. If there is a suspicion of disease, your doctor will ask you to have a complete blood count test first. In the complete blood count test, hematocrit, hemoglobin values are checked, as well as the number of red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets, ie platelets. If the complete blood count test is not sufficient to diagnose disease, your physician may also request hemoglobin electrophoresis, reticulocyte count, serum iron and serum ferritin tests.
Treatment Methods of Anemia
Anemia treatment varies according to the type, course and severity of disease. The main goal of treatment is to eliminate the condition that causes disease. For disease caused by iron deficiency and folic acid, it is recommended to consume green-based vegetables and fruits recommended by the doctor. In addition, it is possible to make these with some reinforcements from outside.
For anemia that develops due to B12 deficiency, vitamin supplements can be given with the help of drops or injection.
If you are having problems with your health, you should go to the doctor or call 911. If you want to know more about these, you should follow U.S. Department of Health & Human Services.