Pneumonia is when the air sacs in the lungs fill with an inflamed fluid. It occurs when viruses, bacteria and rarely fungal infections reach the lungs. It is one of the leading causes of death in children aged 0-4.
The disease can occur at any age. However, pneumonia can be quite dangerous in children under 2 years of age, people with very weak immune systems and people over 65. It is more common in children with heart disease or previous lung disease and in preterm births.
According to the data of the World Health Organization, 1-2 out of 100 people in the world get pneumonia every year. Since the symptoms of pneumonia are often confused with upper respiratory infection, coronavirus symptoms and flu, patients can go to the doctor late. This causes the disease to progress and the treatment to be delayed. Approximately 7% of all deaths in the world are thought to be caused by pneumonia, the researchers said.
Those with chronic diseases such as COPD, diabetes, heart disease and kidney failure; Young children, pregnant women and the elderly need to consult a doctor to have a pneumonia vaccine to prevent pneumonia.
How Is Pneumonia Transmitted?
Flu and similar viral respiratory infections that predispose to pneumonia are highly contagious. They can be spread by sneezing and coughing, as well as by touching items such as mouth, glass, handkerchief, fork-spoon, door handle, and then by touching the hands to the mouth.
It is very important that the sick person does not approach the elderly, pregnant women and children. Public transport and crowded places also increase the risk.Although rare, the leakage of mouth and stomach contents into the respiratory tract and inhalation of some chemicals can also cause disease.
Things to Pay Attention
- After you touch your nose and mouth, wash them thoroughly.
- Wash your hands regularly and thoroughly before you use food.
- Throw away the handkerchief you used after coughing and sneezing and wash your hands if possible.
- Do not share your glasses or utensils with others.
- Smoking, alcohol, etc. Stay away from habits that suppress and weaken your immune system.
Causes of Pneumonia
Pneumonia is usually the result of an infection caused by a bacterium called Streptococcus. Researchers say 50% of socially borne disease is caused by this bacterium. In addition, various bacteria such as Haemophilus influenza, Mycoplasma pneumoniae can also cause pneumonia.
In addition, viruses such as rhinovirus, coronavirus, influenza, adenovirus, which cause seasonal cold and flu, and RSV (respiratory syncytial virus) that cause bronchiolitis, especially in children, can also be a factor of pneumonia. Fungal pneumonia is very rare and occurs in people with very low immune systems.
Symptoms of Pneumonia
- High fever
- Chills and chills
- Continuous yellow-green sputum
- Rapid breathing
- Difficulty breathing
- Chest pain
- Flank pain
- Fatigue and weakness
- Abdominal pain and bloating
- Vomiting or feeling of vomiting
- Confusion in people over 65 years of age
Pneumonia is a serious disease. It should be diagnosed and treated quickly. Your doctor will first listen to your complaints and take your medical history and then perform a physical examination. Examination of the lungs is very important in the diagnosis of pneumonia.
Doctors take into account the patient’s clinical condition, age, causative bacteria and virus type, radiology and laboratory findings and personal risk factors in the treatment of pneumonia.
If you have symptoms of respiratory failure, doctors consider hospital treatment appropriate. However, if the general condition and clinical findings of the patient are appropriate, the treatment can be carried out at home and the follow-up can be called for control at close intervals.
Doctors usually do not use antibiotic therapy for pneumonia caused by viruses. In such cases, your doctor will advise you to rest and drink plenty of fluids and, if appropriate, may prescribe some medications that will reduce your complaints.
Antibiotic treatment is applied for pneumonia caused by bacteria. Rest is very important in pneumonia. You may feel mild weakness for a month after the disease has healed.
If the patients do not go to the doctor and use antibiotics on their own, it makes the disease much more severe and increases the danger. Excessive use of antibiotics and the selection of unsuitable drugs may lead to the development of resistant microorganisms and thus a decrease in the success of the actual treatment.
If you are having problems with your health, you should go to the doctor or call 911. If you want to know more about these, you should follow U.S. Department of Health & Human Services.